This article is a brief guide to the adaptogens and nervines and how we could go about combining them. They are two powerful classes of herb useful for many problems. Although, it is better to use them after developing a good understanding of their traditional indications and contra indications.
It is thought adaptogens operate through gently modulating the sympatho-adrenal or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axes of the endocrine system (Reviewed by Panossian, 2017), which are related to stress response, to adapt the organism to dealing with stress. These herbs are known as the Qi tonics or rasayana herbs in traditional Chinese or Ayurvedic medicine, respectively. They are called Qi tonics because they all have this characteristic of increasing a person’s overall energy or Qi. However, they are not simple stimulants like coffee and the elevated energy does not burn out quickly like that from caffeine.
Nervine herbs on the other hand, aside from the nervine stimulants, act to relax the nervous system to differing degrees. We may also define additional actions for nervines and adaptogens. For instance, the nervine American skullcap is also a nervine tonic and is thought to be restorative to the nervous system to some extent. While the nervine lemon balm is also an effective carminative suited for reducing excessive digestive gas.
As well as herbal actions, adaptogens and nervines also have specific indications and affinities for different systems of the body. For example, astragalus and reishi are potent immune stimulators and so are suited for protecting against infections, while he shou wu and ashwagandha have an affinity for the male reproductive system and may improve sexual performance and drive. One common characteristic to adaptogens is they tend to be quite multi-purpose. Importantly, adaptogens and nervines also have different energetic properties, which relate to how warming, cooling, drying, or moistening they are on the individual’s constitution.
(above) American skullcap, a nervine tonic and sedative. Best in a fresh tincture form.
We have learnt from knowledge passed down through the generations that herbs, including adaptogens and nervines have certain energetic properties (i.e. warming, cooling, moistening, drying) (Figure 1). These should, ideally, be taken into account when selecting an adaptogen or nervine. A common finding, for example, if taking a drying herb like prickly ash, is that certain people who tend towards dryness (i.e. dry skin, constipation) tend to get dried out skin. This would be especially true for the vata constitution in Ayurveda (cold and dry). I observed this for the first time when testing prickly ash on myself, being a vata constitution dominantly, I was interested to see the skin almost immediately dry out and parts turn red on my hands after taking small doses of this potent herb (5-10 drops). Some time later, I also observed after taking a little too much ashwagandha, my hands dried out again. Ashwagandha is a drying and warming herb in Ayurveda.
Although some people still do not believe in herbal energetics, the same system of medicine based on heating, cooling, drying, or moistening herbs is found within ancient Greek, Ayurvedic, and traditional Chinese medicine. Perhaps, it is one of those things you must see for yourself first hand. David Winston provides more detailed information on energetics which are related to the taste of the herbs in his book, Adaptogens: herbs for strength, stamina, and stress relief (Winston, 2007).
Figure 1. Energetic properties of common nervine and adaptogen medicinal herbs.
The nervous-endocrine system spectrum
Another way of viewing adaptogens and nervines is to examine how stimulating they are to the nervous system (Figure 2). Certain adaptogens, such as Asian ginseng tend to be more stimulating and may cause insomnia, while ashwagandha tends to be more calming and therefore potentially useful for sleep. It has been said young people are usually more suited to less stimulating adaptogens as they often have more energy or Qi, while for older people the converse applies. More stimulating adaptogens may be taken in the morning only if an individual finds them overly stimulating.
Adaptogens combine well with the nervine herbs because they may reinforce their relaxing activity and allow a more complex combination of herbal actions. For instance, combining a calming adaptogen such as ashwagandha with the nervine tonic, American skullcap, amplifies the calming activity of ashwagandha and creates a relaxing pair for the nervous system. This could be useful for those persons suffering with nervous over excitation like, insomnia and or anxiety.
Figure 2. The nervous-endocrine system spectrum.
Typical considerations when choosing herbs for a formula that mixes adaptogens and nervines are; constitution (e.g. pitta, vata, kapha), diseased tissue state (e.g. hot (inflamed), cold, wet, dry, tense, relaxed), actions, affinities, and specific indications of the herb. It is also appropriate to consider when using an adaptogen that some people are more prone to insomnia and are very sensitive and so may respond better to a calming adaptogen such as ashwagandha or holy basil. Equally, some people may have a lot of dry skin going on and therefore a moistening nervine like hawthorn berry may be more appropriate. I recommend studying Matthew Wood’s The Earthwise Herbal books for a more complete explanation of constitutions and tissue states (Wood, 2009).
It also is important to read up on contra indications for herbs, these can be obtained from the herbal encyclopedia on this site or webMD or other sites and text books.
A simple way widely practiced is to just pick an herb by its action, e.g. nervine sedative. Although this can work well and there is room for a variety of different ways of deciding which herb to use, I think it is good to learn from the ancient traditions of the world such as Ayurveda and TCM.
We will now turn to examine some specific indications from traditional knowledge and (preliminary) scientific studies. References for specific indications are included in the sites materia medica. I have also tested all of these herbs on myself and can therefore confirm a good many of the indications.
Ashwagandha: Insomnia, anxiety, nerve pain, sexual/ reproductive problems, autoimmune diseases, fatigue, musculoskeletal conditions such as fibromyalgia and both types of arthritis, cognitive problems such as ADD, ADHD, and dementia.
Asian ginseng: Weak immune system, allergies, fatigue, cognitive problems, sexual and reproductive problems in men, fibromyalgia, longevity.
Gotu kola: Anxiety, nerve pain, fatigue, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, dry scaly skin, cognitive problems, autoimmune diseases, longevity.
Holy basil: Autoimmune diseases, nerve pain, anxiety, insomnia, weak immune system, cognitive problems, allergies.
Rhodiola: Depression, fatigue, anxiety, cognitive problems.
He shou wu: Sexual weakness/debility in men, musculoskeletal conditions, constipation, inflammation of the GI tract, fatigue, longevity.
Schisandra: Anxiety, insomnia, fatigue, liver complaints and disorders, weak digestion, hypertension, palpitations, poor appetite.
Reishi: Anxiety, insomnia, fatigue, asthma, inflammation of GI tract, musculoskeletal conditions, weak immune system, allergies, longevity.
Licorice: Fatigue, inflammation of GI tract, dry cough, constipation.
Cordyceps: Asthma, autoimmune diseases, fatigue, sexual problems in men, weak immune system.
Astragalus: Weak immune system, fatigue, allergies, poor appetite.
Shatavari: Sexual problems in both sexes (but particularly women), fatigue, insomnia, inflammation of GI tract.
St. John’s wort: Nerve pain, anxiety, depression, stabbing pains, muscle pains, shooting pains, nerve irritation.
American skullcap: Insomnia, anxiety, nerve pain, tense muscles, muscle pain.
Milky oat seed: Emotionally unstable, depression, insomnia, anxiety.
Blue vervain: Muscle tension, anxiety, insomnia, epilepsy.
Kava: More severe insomnia, anxiety, pain, muscle tension.
Lemon balm: Insomnia, anxiety, cognitive problems, excess digestive gas, depression.
California poppy: Nerve pain, chronic pain, insomnia, anxiety.
Valerian: Tense muscles, insomnia, anxiety.
Hawthorn: Hypertension, constipation, ADHD, dry skin.
Example adaptogen or adaptogen-nervine pairs
A nice way of working on a formula is thinking about pairs we might use. We could build on these to make a triplet, or just use a more simple pair, depending on need. These are pairs I have personally tried together and liked.
Note, panax ginseng is contra indicated with high BP and ashwagandha with hyper thyroidism and St. John’s wort has a few potential issues, best to read about St. John’s wort in more detail here.
Panax ginseng and ashwagandha: Will increase depleted energy levels. Ashwagandha is good for muscleoskeletal and nervous system inflammation and pain. Will likely increase male sex drive. Ginseng should help balance the immune system to reduce allergies and strengthen it to fight future infections. 6-year-old roots of Korean red panax ginseng are recommended.
Ashwagandha and St. John’s wort: A strong Indian-Western nerve tonic pair, suitable for neuropathic pain, muscleoskeletal inflammation, lowering anxiety, and improving the emotional state. Will increase energy more gently than by using panax ginseng. St. John’s wort should be used in a fresh as possible tincture from the fresh flowers.
Ashwagandha and American skullcap: This pair is well suited to anxiety and insomnia and have good anxiolytic synergy together. Does not cause daytime sleepiness. May be tried for nervous system damage and pain. Ashwagandha is good for muscleoskeletal pain and inflammation.
An example of mixing adaptogens and nervines
You can do a lot with nervines and adaptogens. This is just an example of what we might consider when formulating. Tissue state is NA because the nervous system does not have wet, cold, dry, and hot states in the same way the joints or lungs do, for example.
St. John’s wort, skullcap, and ashwagandha are some of the best tonics for vata, they are only slightly drying, and are calming, and restorative. Particularly skullcap and ashwagandha are good for sleep. Vata is symbolic of the wind element in Ayurveda with a tendency to change, these people may be hypermobile, thin, prone to anxiety and insomnia, dryness, weak digestion, and pale skin.
Constitution: Dry cold/hot. Vata-pitta.
Condition/s: Nerve pain. Vata aggravation.
Tissue state/s: NA
Systems/: Nervous system
Action/s: Nervine tonic, adaptogen, analgesic, nootropic, sedative, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, relaxant
Energetics: St. John’s wort (warming, drying), ashwagandha (warming, drying), gotu kola (cooling, drying), skullcap (cooling, drying)
Contraindications: Any pharmaceutical drugs, especially SSRIs because of St. John’s wort. Ashwagandha is contra indicated with hyper thyroid.
There is, unfortunately, a lack of scientific knowledge surrounding the medicinal properties of plants compared with mainstream drugs, however, what we do have is some strong traditional knowledge. I think it is best to research over multiple traditional sources when deciding to test a medicinal plant on yourself or others.
It is important to remember that herbs may interact with drugs, sometimes in a dangerous manner so this must be properly researched or a doctor consulted. However, sometimes herbs may help get a person off drugs, so it may work both ways. Some medicinal herbs have specific contra indications like panax ginseng and high blood pressure, that are good to know about. However, as for the herbs described on this site, the truth is they are safer than drugs when used correctly.
Herbalism of different varieties is being more widely practised by folk herbalists, including bio-hackers, who will use just about anything and are very keen on scientific studies while they often look down on traditional knowledge. I think what is needed is a more balanced approach drawing from the worlds great herbalist teachers as well as any scientific developments.
David Winston: https://www.herbalstudies.net/_media/resources/library/HarmonyRemedies(1).pdf
Cautions and contraindications
Using adaptogens for energy instead of good sleep, lifestyle, and eating habits will lead to a sleep debt and burnout. Stimulating adaptogens may be best taken in the morning to avoid insomnia. We recommend reading this PDF by Paul Bergner, an herbalist highly experienced with using the adaptogens if you are thinking of using them on yourself or on others (link).
Panossian, Alexander. “Understanding adaptogenic activity: specificity of the pharmacological action of adaptogens and other phytochemicals.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2017).
Winston, David, and Steven Maimes. Adaptogens: herbs for strength, stamina, and stress relief. Inner Traditions/Bear & Co, 2007.
Groves, Maria. Body into Balance. Storey Publishing, 2016.
Wood, Matthew. The Earthwise Herbal: A Complete Guide to New World Medicinal Plants. North Atlantic Books, 2009.